Coal is the mineral anthracite, a fossil fuel composed of carbon and created over millions of years by the pressurizing and long term breakdown of of organic materials like plant remains. It is a black mineral found below the ground and mined out like any other rock or mineral. It is considered sedimentary, but can become metamorphic w/ continued exposure to heat & pressure. It is used for burning to supply heat and to make coal gas and coal tar.
Charcoal is produced by slow heating of wood or other combustible substances in the absence of oxygen. It is also a black substance made by burning wood slowly in an oven with a little air, and can be used as a filtering material or as fuel or for drawing. It is similar in some respects to coal, but is less dense and more porous.So the main difference between the two is that coal is a mineral and charcoal is the ultimate form of burnt wood.